SMORES-EP is a modular robot designed and built at the University of Pennsylvania, and used by researchers at Penn and Cornell. SMORES stands for Self-Assembling MOdular Robot for Extreme Shapeshifting, and EP refers to the Electro-Permanent magnets the modules use to connect.

Modular Robot Design Embedding

We have developed an algorithm that automatically detects embeddability of modular robot configurations. Simply put, a given design embeds another design if it can replicate its structure, and therefore simulate its functionality. We introduce a novel graph representation for modular robots, and formalize the notion of embedding through topological and kinematic conditions. Our algorithm involves …


The design of this system called SMORES (Self-assembling MOdular Robot for Extreme Shapeshifting) is capable of rearranging its modules in all three classes of reconfiguration; lattice style, chain style and mobile reconfiguration. Modules are independently mobile and are capable of self-assembly from a collection of disconnected modules.